The Texas Rangers Law Enforcement

The Texas Rangers & The Texas Ranger Hall of Fame

There probably isn’t a little boy in Texas that didn’t once pretend to be a Texas Ranger riding a horse, wearing a big Stetson hat, with boots on and toting a gun, chasing the Indians around his backyard. The Texas Rangers have been the subject of many books, movies, comics, programs and plays. But, did you realize that the Texas Rangers are the oldest law enforcement body in America?

Stephen F. Austin, the “Father of Texas” commissioned the first Rangers in 1823 to protect around 600-700 of the early colonists from Indian attacks while Texas was still a province of Mexico. He referred to these men as rangers since they were to range over large areas. If you’ve never been to Texas, it’s probably rather difficult to imagine just how large these areas are.

The Texas Rangers have played a part in many of the most important events of Texas history. Some of the more notable criminal cases they were involved in were: gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, and outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. I remember being quite fascinating with the Bonnie and Clyde story as a kid. Seems many people today see them as fictional movie characters.

Fort FIsher along the Brazos RIver on Intersate-35 in Waco, Texas is home to the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum. If you ever get a chance, you should drop in. I’ve heard it mentioned more than once that Chuck Norris is known to pop in. You may recall that Chuck Norris starred in the TV series, Walker, Texas Ranger.
Photo credit:
Photo credit:
Texas Ranger: The Epic Life of Frank Hamer, the Man Who Killed Bonnie and Clyde
Texas Ranger: The Epic Life of Frank Hamer, the Man Who Killed Bonnie and Clyde
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Texas Rangers Timeline

October 17, 1835: A resolution was made to create a corps of Texas Rangers consisting of 25 men under the command of Silas M. Parker covering the frontier between the Brazos River and the Trinity River, 10 men under the command of Garrison Greenwood to work on the east side of the Trinity River, and 25 men under the command of D. B. Frazier to cover the area between the Brazos and the Colorado Rivers.
November 24, 1835: The ordinance passed creating a corps. Their duty as Rangers was to protect the frontier against the Indians until the end of the Revolution. They were paid $1.25 per day for “pay, rations, clothing, and horse service,” and the enlistment was for one year.
December 1836: The Congress of the Texas Republic (1836-1845) passed a law providing that President Sam Houston raise a battalion of 280 mounted riflemen to protect the frontier with a term of service of six months.
January 1837: A law was passed providing for a company of Rangers for the frontier various counties. Once by one more companies were added. It was during this period that the Texas Rangers began to make a name for themselves that spread far beyond the borders of the state.
1840: The Rangers fight many battles with the Indians including the Council House Fight in San Antonio, the raid on Linnville, and the Battle of Plum Creek.
1842: President Sam Houston approved a law providing for a companies of mounted men to “act as Rangers” on the southern and southwestern frontiers.
January 23, 1844, A law authorizes John C. Hays to raise a company of mounted men to act as Rangers from Bexar to Refugio Counties and westward.
January 28, 1861: Texas seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy (ratified Feb 23, 1861)
March 30, 1870: Texas was readmitted to the Union
May 1874: The Legislature appropriated $75,000 to organize six companies of 75 men known as the Frontier Battalion. They were stationed in districts at strategic points over the state. This was the first time they were given the status of peace officers instead of being a semi-miliary organization.
1901: The Frontier Battalion was abolished since the frontier had basically disappeared. The Ranger Service was reorganized under a new law. Each Ranger was considered an officer and was given the right to perform all duties exercised by any other peace officer. There were to be four companies of 20 men each.
August 10, 1935: The Texas Rangers and the Texas Highway Patrol became the Texas Department of Public Safety giving them statewide law enforcement jurisdiction.
September 1, 1935: The beginning of today’s Texas Ranger.

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Police Racist Video and Learning in Fort Worth Texas

THE STORY: Fort Worth police investigate video arrest of women

According to multiple news reports the following has been publicly shared:

Fort Worth police placed an officer on restricted duty Thursday 22 Dec 2016 after a Facebook video showed him arresting a woman who’d called police to complain that a neighbor had allegedly assaulted her young son apparently on Wednesday 21 Dec 2016.

Police say they’re conducting an internal investigation of the incident, which also resulted in the mother (Jackie Craig) and her two teenage daughters being arrested. The man the woman accused of assaulting her son was not arrested, although police say they’ve taken a report and are investigating.

The video shot in a residential neighborhood on Wednesday starts with the uniformed officer talking to a man standing on a sidewalk.The officer approaches a woman identified as Jacqueline Craig, who tells the officer her young son complained the white man, a neighbor, had grabbed and choked the 7 year old boy. The man said the boy had thrown litter on the ground, Craig said.

“Why don’t you teach your son not to litter?” the officer asks Craig.”He can’t prove to me that my son littered,” Craig replied. “But it doesn’t matter if he did or didn’t, it doesn’t give him the right to put his hands on him.””Why not?” the officer said.The video showed the argument escalating. The officer wrestled Craig and her daughter to the pavement and handcuffed them. He pulled out a stun gun but it was unclear if he used it.The officer placed those two females into a squad car. Someone screamed, “I just recorded everything!” but it’s not clear if that was the camera operator. The officer moved toward the camera and said, “OK, you’re going to jail, too.”

The video shook and stopped.The video was shot by Craig’s daughter, Brea Hymond, said Jasmine Crockett, a family lawyer. It was uploaded to social media by a relative. Crockett acknowledged they had a longer video of the incident but said they wouldn’t release it at this time. S. Lee Merritt, another lawyer for the two women, has released expectation demands of the family.

The police department has not released the name of the officer yet.

“Since this is an internal investigation, state law limits the information that may be released, including the officer’s body cam footage,” the department said.

Craig, 46, and Hymond, 19, were charged with resisting arrest, search or transport and interfering with public duties, Crocket said. They were released from jail Thursday.

Craig’s 15-year-old daughter was also taken into custody but was released to an older sister, Crockett said. Her name is not being released because she’s a minor.

I reviewed 6 news reports on this terrible incident. This included a news video of fort worth political leaders and activists. Key feedback from them was:

1. need for diversity – specifically less white men in uniform and more women and men of color

2. the “system” is working as long as the pubic makes and shares video evidence of such apparent abuse.

Every article reporter, family lawyer, and witness describes the extreme racism and / or sexism of the white police officer. However in the video the officer never ever said anything racist/ sexist! He did seem to have a bad attitude toward the complainant – perhaps due to past interaction with same person? Everyone just assumed the officer was racist and / or sexist due to his demeanor and sarcasm with Mrs. Craig. This anti-diversity ASSUMPTION and speculation by the media and others was the only provable RACIST /SEXIST commentary and attitude to date.
Detective M. Kelly with the Fort Worth Police Department’s Internal Affairs Division told The Root that Fort Worth Police Chief Joel Fitzgerald had been made aware of the Wednesday arrests of Jacqueline Craig and her daughter Brea Hymond.
Detective M. Kelly with the Fort Worth Police Department’s Internal Affairs Division told The Root that Fort Worth Police Chief Joel Fitzgerald had been made aware of the Wednesday arrests of Jacqueline Craig and her daughter Brea Hymond.

The rest of the story the media and others will ignore includes:

A) The articles on the incident were selectively poorly documented by the media.The Craig family for example had NO background shared publicly by all this press.

– past police record,past call in complaints,

– welfare, CPS and divorce issues, etc

B) The family and friends HIGH LEVEL of CONFIDENCE in the system. The video is shocking in more than one way. The Craig family had multiple videos going of the officer by family and friends and had such planned BEFORE the officer arrived on scene?

They also have a family lawyer(s) on the case within 1 day.. and withheld select video segments as well as withholding the name of the officer themselves .. Hmm, one would think that if they were that ANGRY they would have named the officer themselves since they had is name upon arrival? Yet they seem very system saavy…

C) It seemed clear in the video that the Craig’s and the group around the officer were blackmailing him to do as they wanted else they were going to get him back with video. While the officer does look to be in the WRONG on this issue, it also looks a bit like a set up on the officer. The CRAIG’s either win or win big by BLACKMAILING the police department with video. It simply seemed that the officer was not impressed with complaint, got mad when yelled at, and arrested the ladies. Therefore the Craig’s threat to release the video (ie: the blackmail material) was made good on and is being used publicly with the press lapping it up to score easy circulation bumps without actually investigating.

Tigers in Texas

The exact number of tigers in Texas is unknown but it is estimated by many experts that there are at least 4,000 tigers kept by private individuals in Texas. That means that there are more tigers captive in Texas than roaming in the wild in India.

Some of the experts I refer to are:

McAllen police officer Frank Garcia

Alejandro Rodriguez, special agent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Richard Farinato, the Humane Society of the United States

Jerry Stones, facilities director at the Gladys Porter Zoo in Brownsville

The Drug Enforcement Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife

U.S. Customs

Richard Gilbreth, director of the International Exotic Animal Sanctuary, Boyd

I know it sounds unbelievable, but there are over 12,000 tigers owned as pets in the US and over 4,000 of them are in Texas. Houston alone has over 500 exotic cats being kept as pets by private citizens. I singled out Texas to write about because I am a native Texan.

Sadly, the exotic animal trade is a billion-dollar industry in Texas—which has almost no regulation of exotic animals. The few laws that Texas has are rarely enforced. With such little oversight, the breeding and smuggling of exotic animals—tigers in particular—are booming in Texas. There are a lot of animal breeders and a lot of animal dealers.

Because owning and breeding tigers is legal, law enforcement often has no recourse. Breeding can be lucrative. White tiger cubs sell for $5,000 each. Since tigers can have two litters a year of eight cubs, a breeder can earn $80,000 a year. Many of these white tiger cubs are sold to small businesses that travel around the country displaying them as props and charging tourists to take pictures with them.

Traveling petting zoos that feature baby lions and tigers are a huge source of exotic animals. Since the animals are only suitable for petting between the ages of 8 and 12 weeks, the operators of these attractions must keep breeding them to stay in business, said Carole Baskin, the founder of Big Cat Rescue in Tampa, Fla.

“When they can’t use them anymore, they become this $10,000 a year liability. They will give them away, sell them, no paperwork,” Baskin said. “Then (the buyers) call us and say, ‘I can’t deal with this carnivore.'”

“If you want to place a big cat, I would tell you that every reputable sanctuary is full and more than full,” said Patty Finch, executive director of the Global Federation of Animal Sanctuaries, an accrediting body.

The number of abandoned and seized tigers reached epidemic proportions about 10 years ago.

A federal law prohibits businesses from displaying tigers older than six months with humans because the cats have become too big and dangerous. So the businesses buy another set of cubs. At least 20 small-time operators in Texas would need eight tiger cubs to work throughout the year. In five years, that would total 800 tigers.

Tigers are not difficult to breed in captivity. Innovations in tiger cub formulas, diet, and vaccinations have spurred tiger breeders’ success.

Many breeding operations turn out white Bengal tigers because they are novelties that generate 10 times more money than orange tigers. (White and orange Bengal tigers are the same species, but white tigers have a double recessive genetic condition.) Breeders and exhibitors use the excuse that white tigers are an endangered species so they need to keep breeding them. This is false. Breeders of white tigers do not contribute to any species survival plan; they are breeding for money.

While white tigers can fetch thousands, the less desirable orange tigers can be had for free. A recent ad in Animal Finders, a subscription-only newspaper that advertises exotic animals for sale read “Tiger, free to a good home. Good with children.”

When breeders are trying for white tigers, they sometimes just keep the white ones of the litter and destroy or neglect the orange ones.

There are registered breeders in Texas who have USDA licenses. There are also numerous private owners who have a couple of tigers in their backyard. They are not considered commercial breeders, so no state or federal agency keeps tabs on them. It is truly frightening the number of people who are breeding these animals. From Lubbock Online, “In Yorktown, Texas, 10-year-old Lorin Villafana was in the cage with her stepfather when one of his tigers went for her neck and killed her.” This is just one example.

During these tough economic times, what does a person do when they have a pet tiger that costs thousands of dollars a year just to feed and that person gets laid off work? There are the vet bills, and the day-to-day cost of maintaining a habitat for a tiger. A tiger in captivity needs a huge space in which to roam. They love to spend time swimming. They can jump forward 14 feet or so, so their area needs to be separated by a ravine. A tiger’s lifespan in captivity can be 25 years or more.

If you own a tiger, you will have to have a veterinarian on call who has already agreed to take care of your cat. There are not many with experience and fewer still who want to deal with the liability of having their staff and their clientele exposed to your big cat. You will have to have a stainless steel squeeze cage that is capable of holding your cat at its maximum weight. You could easily spend $2000.00 for one big enough for a tiger. You will need a forklift to move a tiger and they rent for $300.00 per day with an operator. No vet will bring a big cat into their office unless it is already confined to the squeeze cage.

How will you transport your cat to the vet for all of its yearly vaccinations, checkups and injuries? Its squeeze cage isn’t going to fit into your car. You will need a van in tip top shape because being stranded on the side of the road with a tiger is not an option.

All wild cats, neutered or not, male or female, will spray bucket loads of urine all over everything they wish to claim as theirs. This is how nature has taught them to guard territory. There is no way to prevent this behaviour. The urine is caustic and will destroy their cage walls in a very short period of time, so you will be constantly rebuilding. You can’t imagine what it does to the sheet rock walls of your house or to wood. Those trips to the vet will leave your new van smelling like a sewer and nothing will get that smell out.

Once tigers are mature they no longer feel any love for their mother and if they run into her in the wild they will kill her. Even if you raised them with all of the love and nurturing that their natural mother would provide (and she would die to protect them) they will not feel love or respect for you when they are full grown. Instinct tells them that you are competition and that their survival depends on being solitary.

You will never be able to legally move long-distance with your big cat because the captive Wildlife Safety Act prohibits moving big exotic pet cats across state lines. Many progressive states are banning the practice of keeping wild cats captive.

It is a rare individual indeed who has the financial resources, the stamina, and the dedication to keep these animals well-fed, clean, with plenty of room for freedom of movement, and at the same time, safely away from the human population.

An owner might just give up and turn the tiger loose or move away and abandon the tiger to starve or escape.

Texas is running out of zoos and sanctuaries that can take animals that are abandoned by their owners or seized in illegal smuggling rings. The burgeoning tiger population has dangerous consequences for public safety — you might have a pet tiger living down the block — not to mention the health of the tiger, forced to live in poor conditions.

A glut of tigers in an unregulated market can mean tragedy for the animals. Where are all of these tigers going to go?

There are few places for tigers to go when their owners abandon them. For many years, Texas had no regulation of dangerous wild animals. But after a series of high profile maulings and deaths were reported in the media, the nonprofit Texas Humane Legislative Network prodded the Legislature to pass the Dangerous Wild Animal Act in 2001.

The law requires counties and cities to register dangerous wild animals such as tigers with local animal control. It mandates that the owner keep the animal in a secure enclosure of adequate size, humanely care for the animal, and maintain at least $100,000 in liability insurance. It also gives cities and counties the option to ban private ownership of wild animals altogether.

Since the bill became law, fewer than half of Texas’ 254 counties have enforced the legislation. Some counties feel the responsibility should fall on a state agency. The local authorities say that they don’t have the resources to handle lions and tigers and cougars. So they are not going to enforce it.

It becomes a property rights issue for people who believe they should be able to own anything they want. You may find out that a guy two miles down the road from you owns a couple of tigers when a neighborhood child walks up to the fence and is injured or killed.

Tiger cubs are cute and cuddly. However, tigers reach adulthood within 2.5 years. Siberian tigers, the largest of the 6 remaining subspecies, grow from tiny little cubs to HUGE adults weighing up to 850 pounds and 11 feet or more in length from nose to tip of the tail. Most of their growing is in the first 18 months where growth is rapid.

Most other tigers weigh on average 650 pounds, possess phenomenal strength, can leap forward 14 feet or so, have 2 inch canine teeth and enough bite force to easily crush your femur, and 1.5 inch claws. They can jump on your back and bite you in the neck (it could even be a play bite), severing your vertebrae and killing you instantly. Tigers, no matter how cute and cuddly they look, can kill you easily. They are incredibly strong and unpredictable and can kill you even when they are playing.

The six subspecies of tigers (Panthera tigris):

Sumatran, critically endangered, found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra
Bengal, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutran, and Burma
White Bengal, occurs naturally only once in every 10,000 births
Indochinese, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, and Thailand
Malayan, southern tip of Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, and
Siberian, Russia and at the Russia-China border

Incidents continue to occur throughout the U.S. After the incident in eastern Ohio in October 2011, the Humane Society of the United States urged Ohio to “immediately issue emergency restrictions on the sale and possession of dangerous wild animals. ”

Update Feb. 6, 2013 — SARASOTA – Over the weekend, a 35-year-old tiger trainer lost his life in Mexico when one of the big cats attacked him during a circus performance. Alexander Suarez died from bite wounds and a loss of blood. A member of the crowd managed to capture the attack on camera. The video has since gone viral.

“How many incidents must we catalogue before the state takes action to crack down on private ownership of dangerous exotic animals?” Humane Society Wayne Pacelle asks.

The only way to save tigers from being overbred and abandoned and at the same time keep the citizens of Texas and other states safe from tiger attack is to make it unlawful for private citizens to breed or possess a tiger

Myspace, Facebook, Gps And Other E-discovery: Coming Soon To A Texas Divorce Proceeding Near You

Like many marriages that end in divorce in Texas, the dissolution of the union between Sarah and Mike Brown (names have been changed to protect the innocent) was not done under the most cordial of circumstances. The Browns were married for seventeen years, owned an enviable home outside of Dallas, Texas, and were the proud parents of three school-aged children. Mike had been growing noticeably more distant over the past couple of years and the ideal life they presented in public was a much different reality behind closed doors. Sarah had a strong suspicion that her husband was having an affair and, being adept at searching her way through the newest pieces of technology, decided to check out Mike’s personal computer when he was out of town on business. What Sarah Brown found on her husband’s computer hard drive was enough to make her call a divorce lawyer the next morning, and begin an emotional trial that tested the boundaries of the always-evolving legal world of electronic discovery.

Damaging discovery that an attorney can use against an opposing spouse party in a divorce action or child custody proceeding is no longer limited to a trace of lipstick left on a white-shirt collar or a mysterious credit card bill found during a quick rummage through a briefcase. Today, sophisticated Texas divorce lawyers are more likely to present evidence that comes from cell phone records, Facebook comments, MySpace pages, deleted e-mails, and visits to web sites that were not quite as hidden as planned.
If divorce clients make the mistake of engaging in behavior that is not conducive to a happy marriage, do not think that they are safe from exposure even while driving in their cars. Texas divorce attorneys will tell you that even E-Z Pass toll records can be subpoenaed to prove that they were heading somewhere they had no business being. In addition, a suspicious spouse can attach a Global Positioning System (GPS) device to the family car and later use these recorded routes against your client in court. These days, the notion that every moment of one’s life is for the public eye does not just apply to celebrities and public figures. However, the attorney needs to be sure that the evidence collected is done in a way that does not violate Federal or State privacy laws. What is the point of collecting every condemning email or text message if a Federal or Texas State judge decides the documents are inadmissible in court? Does it matter if the proof of an affair was found on a work computer, a personal laptop, PDA, or a family computer that also is used by the teenage residents for history homework?
There is the dangerous misconception that activities, which take place online, are somehow harmless or at least not as consequential as the same decisions made in real-life. Flirting with a woman on the computer is not the same as chatting with her in a bar, right? With that said, you should be aware that social networking sites are taking steps to make sure that their content is accessible in legal situations. Have you read the fine print before typing a comment to your “friend” on MySpace? This web site and others like it state that, if legal standards are met, user information can be passed on to law enforcement agencies and legal teams involved in divorces.

Family law attorneys who are fighting a child custody battle also scour the internet looking for possible electronic discovery. All that a lawyer needs to find is a few photos of a minor child smoking pot or drinking alcohol posted on a web site and charges of being an unfit parent can be substantiated. Let the words of Dallas family attorney Mary Jo McCurley serve as a warning, “For a lawyer, it’s almost like a ‘ha’ moment. It’s kind of fun when you see something that you can use as evidence [against] the opposing party.” Online activities are just as serious as those in the “real world” and, to the absolute delight of opposing legal counsel, electronic behavior is recorded and never, ever goes away.

Lawmakers and courts at all levels of state and federal government have been scrambling to keep up with the ever-increasing series of questions that new technology brings. What evidence can and should be admissible in court? In what form or predicate should the attorney present the evidence? When is the line protecting the right to privacy crossed? Through amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure on December 1, 2006, Congress enacted the primary guidelines used to answer such questions and others on the federal level. Through Rule 34(a), Congress added electronically stored information (ESI) as a category of discoverable information. To ensure that this amendment maintained its relevance as new technologies are invented, ESI was defined to be “writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, sound recordings, images, and other data or data compilations stored in any medium from which information can be obtained.” By purposefully using the language, “in any medium,” in the future, the federal courts can require data from technology not even invented yet. If you have had any difficulty keeping up with the new electronic devices that have come on the market in just the last five years (how many versions of the iPhone and Blackberry are there now?), you can understand why the federal lawmakers left such a wide open door.

The corresponding Federal Rule 34(b) measure, passed at the same time as Federal Rule 34(a), allows the requesting party to determine the form in which evidence is presented. Maybe a paper printout is enough to meet your goals in a particular instance. In other circumstances, you may decide that the electronic version must be produced in order to include all background and transmission information. Often times, the full electronic record will be the preferred choice of attorneys and clients alike as a hard copy will not tell the complete story behind a piece of evidence. Only with the information that is stored on a computer or other electronic device will you be able to extract the time at which a particular transaction occurred, any information deleted from the current text, or possibly the date and time at which an online correspondence occurred.

In 2006, Texas was the first state in the country to amend its rules of procedure concerning electronic discovery, and one of only a few states to do so before the federal government made its changes. With this foresight in establishing some guidelines prior to the procedure set by the federal government, Texas has been able to create a different level of responsibility for evidence than what was determined by federal legislation three years ago. Ten years ago, in 1999, our state wrote the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure (TRCP) 196.4, which referred exclusively to electronic or magnetic data. This state law requires that the interested party must specifically request each type of electronic data and specify the form in which the interested party wants the data produced. The responding party may state that the request for retrieval of particular data or information itself is not reasonable, or at least object to the form in which its presentation is requested. If a Texas court orders that the electronic discovery must be made available, the requesting party is responsible for paying the costs to have the information prepared. This detail, known as the “mandatory cost shifting position” is an important legal point for both clients and their attorneys to know. With Rule196.4 at their disposal, opposing counsel will work to prove the requests to be unreasonable and you will be stuck with the cost of production. The director of the Institute for the Advancement of the American Legal System, Rebecca Love Kourlis, has noted that before the prevalence of e-Discovery, five percent of divorce cases actually went to trial. That number has fallen to two percent, mostly because the plaintiff fears the costs that would be associated with gathering e-Discovery evidence.

If you are a family law attorney who is assisting a client through emotional and difficult legal circumstances, I encourage you to be as creative as possible when determining possible requests for electronic discovery. The most effective and proactive participants in divorce proceedings will test the boundaries in this still-uncertain area of law. Some divorce lawyers have even hired investigators with digital forensic tools to do some electronic snooping for their clients. Chances are, if the suspicion is strong, the electronic evidence will be found. As Gateano Ferro, president of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, shared in an interview, “In just about every case now, to some extent, there is some electronic evidence. It has completely changed our (legal) field.” Just ask former Detroit mayor Kwame Kilpatrick how damaging a flirtatious chat on a Blackberry can be to one’s marriage and professional standing. All financial records certainly should be on the table—items as small as romantic dinners and payment for hotel rooms to a larger issue like entire accounts that were kept secret may have relevance in establishing a divorce settlement. You should request every text message ever sent on a cell phone. If or until the courts decide that messages sent to an individual’s Facebook page cannot be accessed due to a violation of our privacy laws, get a copy of every word typed! Does your spouse have an online calendar program, such as those offered through Google or Microsoft Outlook, which lists daily appointments? If this site shows that he was supposed to be at little Johnny’s baseball game at 4:00 pm but you have witnesses to prove otherwise, you can make the case that your spouse has priorities other than his children. Of course, in light of the Texas law detailed earlier, make sure you have constructed convincing arguments that all of the material you need is reasonable in both its content and requested format.

When it comes to electronic discovery and the Texas legal system, there are still many more questions than established areas of agreement. Divorce attorneys, when they search for case law to be used as binding or persuasive precedent concerning admissibility of electronic evidence, find only a short list of documents to review. And, with new technology emerging every day that is capable of storing financial records, personal conversations, and searches of web sites that are far from G-rated, family law judges can expect that every new estranged couple that comes before them in a courtroom brings the possibility of unchartered territory concerning evidence and what rightfully belongs on the public record. While the general statutes for the submission of electronic discovery have been written on both the federal and state level, the intentionally broad language included in the amendments will mean that difficult judgment calls should be expected for some time to come. Only time will tell how our judicial system decides to weigh an individual’s right to privacy versus the right of an accuser to have all possible evidence at his or her disposal.

When the issues are as emotionally difficult as those that often surround divorce and child custody cases, legal counsel that can guide a client through the process is even more crucial. Electronic discovery is now playing a critical role in more than 75% of divorce cases and, with new ways of hiding and revealing secrets developing all the time, an attorney versed in electronic discovery may very well have the opportunity to break new ground in the courtroom. In ten years, the case law and precedents surrounding electronic discovery will likely be well established by the courts. For now, however, this subject is certainly the “Wild West” of the legal arena. So warn your clients to be mindful of their text messages, their Facebook friends, and their online banking records. Better yet, tell them to be more mindful of maintaining a strong marriage so that there is never a need for an attorney to subpoena their hard drive in the first place.

Kaufman County Arrest Records Free Search

The crime rate in Texas is severe to say the least. For a lot of years, it ranks stubbornly one of the top ten worst states in general. With a population of more than 20 million, there would be millions who have brushes with the law in their life. Texas data including Kaufman County arrest documents give the least uncompromising indication of individuals. They are on file even if the case did not lead to any incarceration and unless sealed or expunged by the courts remain there.

Do you know an individual who is incarcerated at the moment? If you’re thinking about hiring a lawyer, it is crucial that you know what charges have been filed against that individual and if he or she is capable of being set free on bail. Thus, you would be able to approach the right law practitioner to help you out.

There are many ways for you to obtain criminal arrest reports but for the most part, you will need to visit the law enforcement agency that booked the arrest. The Sheriff’s Department has the Kaufman County arrest log. The Sheriff has general jurisdiction on the county and as such, the most logical and practical method to handle this situation is to pay them a visit.

You can also visit the County Sheriff’s website and retrieve the online inmate details list. There are various ways for you to look for the inmate’s report. First is by typing the inmate’s name in the online search box. Another is to check out the whole list of inmates presently incarcerated in the jail. To make it simpler, you may also view the complete list of the inmates by looking at the charges they were arrested for. You can also choose to find an inmate by intake or booking date.

Apart from the County Sheriff, you can try to find court cases at the county courts. This could be the best choice if you find that the inmates you are looking for have an active court trial or have already been convicted of the charges filed against him or her. You can visit the Superior Court, the District Court Clerk or access it through the County’s website. Use the County Courts Records Inquiry search page and select the court that has jurisdiction over the case. Select the criminal case files search and type in the info in the required fields. You can do an investigation based on the defendant, the case, or by the lawyer handling the case.

In addition to said resources, one other way that you can conduct your research on Texas police arrest records is by availing the services of commercial records providers that perform searches for free or for a small fee. They can get numerous and comprehensive information, and give you a complete report regarding the inmate you are looking for. Also, you can try third party sites that provide free searches. However, you need to verify the information you obtain from these to make sure that they are timely and correct.

Hill County Arrest Records Online

Hill County Police arrest Reports may be located at the designated offices. These include the local law enforcement agencies such as the local court house, the Law Enforcement Department, or the county Sheriff’s Office.

Particular sorts of information take time and effort to access without explicit permission or certain rights, there are also others that are easily accessible by anyone as long as they know where to look. Luckily, criminal arrest information and facts are that type of information. Police arrest reports and warrant information may be reviewed and requested by interested parties. It is the policy of the Texas Department of Public Safety that a person or an authorized representative may review and may even receive a copy of their criminal history record information.

Like other states in the US, Texas is an open-records state. The Texas Open Records Act gives its citizens access to public information in the state’s possession. Residents may request for Texas Police arrest Details as long as they follow the correct methods and official policies of the Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS).

In the United States, crime rate is at 4%. While this is not as high as that of other countries, it’s still wise to take extra measures prevent unfavorable circumstances. It is also reported that crimes are often committed by the same criminals. This is why police arrest records have become one of the most sought-after information and facts. This information will help foresee an individuals’ tendencies for crime. Public arrest information are also used in background checks. Criminal background checks have become increasingly popular. It is usually being done for pre-screening purposes prior to hiring or loan approvals. Nowadays, it is not only being done by companies, but by private individuals as well. A full police arrest records check however, will require a full consent from the person involved.

A researcher may first contact the local sheriffs office of Hill County. It is at 406 Hall Street, in Hillsboro, Texas. The researcher may need to fill out request forms and pay a certain fee for each copy requested. The researcher must also give specific and detailed information to the person in charge. This helps them facilitate the search. Requests may take a few days to 1 or 2 weeks to process depending on the volume of requests the office receives at the time.

If the researcher cannot go to the law enforcement in person, he may access available websites provided by Hill County and the state of Texas. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice has a search tool which will provide the researcher with a list of offenders and the crimes they were convicted of. There is also a Criminal Background search tool used to look for those people who are no longer in prison. Information and facts here may request for a small payment. There’s also a Sex Offender Registry at the website. Apart from the official website, there are more free databases over the internet. They may also offer the researcher with a Hill County Arrest Log and also other listings that the researcher may need.

Global Law Enforcement Reform

Although we’re become accustomed to unnerving global cooperation in suppression of demonstrators by increasingly militarized riot police, transnational police standards stand to improve civil rights of an average citizen

Current painfully slow but steady movement towards a Type 1 civilization is demonstrated socially in development of increasingly global themes in movies, rapid transmission of underground music to every spot on earth, in continuing advancement of English as world’s lingua franca (in parallel with decline of key English speaking countries), in social networking tools, and globalist orientation (world as one country) of generation Y among world’s middle and upper classes.

On the state level, we see rapid globalist thrust towards common educational standards for wage slaves via the Bologna Process in the Northern hemisphere, in reorientation of Interpol towards terrorist threats from neo-luddites, religious reactionaries, and politically charged have nots. There’s plenty of less glamorous “under the hood” efforts being conducted to internationalize the Internet and put it under UN regulation and of course to deal with communication, transport, energy, law, etc.

One may argue endlessly whether some competition in standardization is in order (such as having 6 continents falling under 2-3 competing standardization models versus the whole world falling under one potentially faulty and stagnating model). What is clear is that historically, centralized standardized police action improved efficiency in administration of justice by often ignoring and being above the petty corruptions and concerns of localities. Obviously window for brand new abuses was opened up but generally centralization of power and justice was slightly to moderately less corrupt than decentralization of justice (1 rich man’s government versus dozens of smaller rich man’s governments). We usually hear this mentioned in history books in terms of somebody or a group unifying the tribes, colonies, feudal fiefdoms, etc under 1 relatively detached and impartial infrastructurally minded central authority. Transition from feudalism towards a modern state system was a welcome development in reducing abuses and arbitrary action.
The current relatively politically correct “soft” approach of the UN and Interpol is a demonstration of the above. Often one would rather be apprehended by some UN helmet policeman rather than a small town cop from Texas, Russia, or China. Same occurred when Federal police first appeared on the scene in United States in early 20th century. When it comes to bringing order to the wage slave plantations (or “countries” as they are known currently), global police force and rapid development of global policing standards will tend to increase autonomy for an average human and decrease civil rights abuses.

Major police reforms to be undertaken by individual countries under new global umbrella guidelines

1) Elimination and retiring of 50%+ of police forces. This is easily accomplished by transnational agreements to end the futile drug prohibition as well as hands off approach to consensual acts such as gambling, some forms of smuggling, sex work, etc. Such efforts are already underway in South America. A UN and Interpol commission to create a detailed list of “offenses” that are too absurd and socially damaging to continue being so called offenses. Then creating a hands off guidelines to shame other countries into compliance with new socially libertarian measures. End of drug prohibition in United States for instance will allow mass layoffs of policemen currently employed by the executive.

The current development of world’s armed forces is to become “leaner and meaner” and same should and will apply to the police. Modern communication, educational (see below), robotics, and weapons technology makes majority of law enforcement employees obsolete.
In parallel, there will develop a need to absorb a large pool of young aggressive men and women into socially beneficial activities not revolving around military or law enforcement. Traditional venue of sports can save the day once again if new 21st century sports are developed (magnetic levitation football anyone?) that combine physical exertion with new innovative technological and infrastructure construction development. The young homo sapiens should be allowed to tinker with tools and gadgets, aggressively compete in teams, provide their social proof to the community, and get honors for it.

2) Doctorate’s degree as a mandate to be a policeman and tripling of police wages. The responsibility of having the power to enforce justice with violence and to detain a fellow homo sapien is a heavy one. A policeman should be compensated as well as a doctor and be required to undergo many years of social psychology (herd dynamics), fitness, basic law, and various sensitivity conditioning alongside elite weapons training. Mass layoffs of police will free up resources to make remaining policemen as elite as possible. Now of course many human apes who join to serve will have restless aggressive physiologies and after being screened for psychopathy, they should be allowed to start serving in some capacity right away (guards of various facilities, etc) while having to complete their education in parallel. Thus for example, a well compensated 15 hour workweek in limited power capacity with classes towards a PhD. Nurturing sports and fitness should be provided in addition. We should see a lot of new highly motivated people join the force (similar to how post 2008 economic depression eliminated talent shortage problem in the armed forces). Obviously higher salary and more societal respect does not eliminate corruption (one just has to look at big pharma-doctor cooperation in US) but it does make entry to corruption a bit more difficult.

It is essential to create cooperation between transnational police and college standardizing entities concerning implementation.

3) 1 newly trained policeman being able to ideally replace up to 5 late 20th century policemen. Just as a modern policeman has as much cognitive ability, training, technology, and firepower to replace 5+ policemen in 19th century, a 21st century policeman should do the same to current batch of employees. The profession should be socially even more respected and with the end of prohibitions on consensual acts and rebalancing of power between haves and have nots, it will be. Strict fitness and dietary standards should be applied to new recruits and continual lifelong education and nurturing developed. Conditional well paid retirement at 40 is a good idea to reduce corruption, entrenched authoritarian thinking, and to keep supplying new blood to the force.

4) Strict separation between military and police. This is perhaps most difficult to accomplish considering the mass global Internet led awakening among the poor. However, eliminating the gray area of militarized police will be necessary to prevent even further civil unrest and angering of the mob. A society should either figure out how to allow a large crowd to gather peacefully with non-militarized police present (as if it was was New Year’s eve) or it should throw away the mask of civility and bring out the military and tanks when there are large purposeful gatherings. The current gray area just creates militarization of the civilians and a multitude of various neurotic behavior in the herd.

5) Training population to police themselves. This can be accomplished by reintroduction of firearms training in high schools, civil duty lessons, and following the Swiss model of citizen militia. The generation that will follow generation Y is more than ready to accomplish self policing as well as swelling the ranks of embryonic world police core.

Obviously applying some of these reforms on top of current society (especially #4) is not workable but will become increasingly doable with planet’s continuing transition away from current socioeconomic system. This process is a multidecade one and will be most led by countries that emerge from the current financial crisis in their best shape.

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Federal Law Enforcement Jobs

Federal Law Enforcement Jobs are plentiful for those who meet the requirements. With an eye on Homeland Security more than 104,000 Federal Enforcement jobs have been created since 2004. These jobs come from two different sectors, uniformed law enforcement and investigative. Uniformed law enforcement work on behalf of safety and security for federal and government agencies. The investigative arm of Federal Law Enforcement works on behalf of individual agencies such as, the FBI, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Environmental Protection Agency and the CIA just to name a few.

Those who are interested in working in Federal Law Enforcement may be required to relocate to Texas, the District of Columbia, New York, or Florida. This is where more than half of federal law officers are employed.

The Department of Homeland Security alone is in the process of hiring 47,000 employees, while the Department of Defense is looking for over 35,000 qualified people. Many of these Federal Law Enforcement jobs are available due to the fact that more than half of the current federal employees are now eligible for retirement.

Jobs that where once handled by the Department of Treasury, Justice Department, HHS, Defense Department, FBI, Secret Service, GSA, the Energy, Agriculture, and Transportation Departments, along with the U.S. Coast Guard, have been transferred under the banner of the Department of Homeland Security. Each new grouping of jobs are listed under several different divisions of homeland security. They are:

Border and Transportation Security, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Information Analysis and Response, Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection, Science/Technology, and Management.

For more information on Federal Law Enforcement Jobs it is recommended that you visit their website. From there you will find information on jobs that are available and requirements. More than 44,000 jobs are posted due to vacancies by those retiring and new jobs created through the Department of Homeland Security.

Besides jobs available, there is information on salary rates, training and qualifications, plus guidance resources. A federal resume writing service is also available to make sure that you have the best chance when applying for one of the thousands of jobs listed.

If you are interested in the ever expanding importance that Homeland Security has to Federal Law Enforcement, this site will give you all the needed information to get in on the ground floor of this still new department. Listings include, job availability, intern programs, and voluntary applicant files.

Federal Law Enforcement isn’t for those just seeking a job. It’s for only those serious in helping our country’s needs and the needs of the people.

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Zimbabwe police fire teargas at protest against ‘bank notes’

HARARE, Zimbabwe – Riot police in Zimbabwe fired tear gas and beat up opposition protesters marching Wednesday through Harare against the new ‘bond note currency’, an AFP reporter said.
Image by 123RF
Image by 123RF
Zimbabwe’s central bank on Monday rolled out the ‘bond notes’ – equivalent to the US dollar – to ease critical cash shortages, despite fears of a return to the hyperinflation that wiped out many people’s savings in 2009.

About 100 activists from the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) and the pressure group Tajamuka were chanting anti-government songs when police moved in to disperse them.

The protesters also carried placards denouncing the economic policies of President Robert Mugabe, 92, whose 36-year authoritarian rule has come under increasing public criticism this year.

“Bond notes = Toilet tissue” read one placard, as others declared “No To Bond Notes” and called Mugabe “a limping donkey”. Police confronted the marchers with tear gas and water cannons, and beat up several of them with rubber truncheons.

Some shops in the capital’s central business district pulled down their shutters as police chased after the demonstrators. “We are not going to embrace bond notes,” Hardlife Mudzingwa, a spokesman for Tajamuka, told AFP.

“They are being used to mop up the US dollars that people have in their accounts so that top government officials can import their personal goods.”

Many cash machines now disperse half US dollars and half bond notes. Zimbabwe abandoned its own dollar currency in 2009 after hyperinflation hit 500 billion percent. The adoption of foreign currencies like the US dollar and the South African rand brought relative economic stability.

But the gains were soon lost as the government pursued aggressive policies that scared off investors, including indigenisation laws forcing foreign-owned companies to sell majority stakes to locals.

The southern African country’s economic decline has worsened in recent months with banks running out of US dollar notes, forcing desperate depositors to sleep overnight outside bank entrances to try to withdraw money.

Many of the remaining businesses in Zimbabwe have ground to a halt, with unemployment at over 90% and the government repeatedly failing to pay soldiers and civil servants on time.

The proposal to introduce “bond notes” was a driving force behind series of anti-government street protests this year, but Mugabe’s ruthless police force have crushed the wave of dissent.

The new currency, which closely resembles the former Zimbabwe dollar, comes in $2 notes and $1 coins, while a $5 bond note is expected shortly.

The public reception has been mixed, with many Zimbabwe suspicious that the bond note will not hold its value to the US dollar, and others reluctantly accepting that the new notes give them some access to cash. Some shops and fuel stations have been refusing payment in bond notes despite official orders.

The government said the new notes will be backed by a $200 million support facility provided by the Cairo-based Afreximbank (Africa Export-Import Bank).

A checklist for your annual December holiday shutdown

If you’re the owner or manager of small-to-medium business outside the retail and hospitality industries, you’re probably looking forward to the annual break.
(c) rawpixel –
Here’s a checklist of some of the important things to do before you shut down for the December holidays.

1. Let your customers know when you will be away

Do not assume that your customers will know when you will be closed – send them an email or a text message notifying them about the dates of your holiday shutdown. If relevant, let them know who on your team will be available to help them in case of emergency. If you are an e-commerce business, make sure someone is responsible for ensuring the smooth running of the online store.

Brief your team before you send out any customer communications to ensure they are able to plan for the season as well as answer customers’ questions about the holiday shutdown.

2. Calculate bonuses if necessary

If you usually pay a 13th cheque, profit sharing or performance bonuses for team members that qualify, do the calculations well before your December pay run. Let your team members know the news – good or bad – ahead of payday. A good payroll solution can assist you to run this process smoothly, especially during the holiday season when everyone’s request and pay may differ.

3. Work out leave pay and leave balances

At the end of the year, you should also calculate employees’ correct leave pay. To get it right, you must follow the dictates of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act (BCEA). The law outlines the rights of employees around annual leave and severance or notice pay. Also, ensure that there are no employees who are owed leave or who have built up a huge reserve of leave days.

4. Arrange the skeleton crew

December is a popular time for employees to take leave – it is summer, the kids have long school holidays and the office is usually quiet. While it may suit you to have most employees take their leave during the holiday slowdown, you should also make sure you are not short-staffed.

Ensure there are enough people around to attend to urgent customer requests, answer the phones, look after social media and keep an eye on the business. If you do have a skeleton crew running the show during this time, it might be a great idea to award them with a day of bonus leave or a small gift to show your appreciation.

5. Get ready for the New Year

When you get back to work in January, it is generally a rat race to first meetings, wrapping up key projects from the previous year, or catching up with admin. Ensure that you have a dedicated person to handle admin duties while you work on important tasks like business development. You may also be inundated with requests for loans and advances from employees who are broke after the December holidays. Prepare to answer these requests with a standard policy, whether you are able to help or not.

Remember, January can be as tight a month for your business as it is for your team because you will find yourself waiting for some payments. Be sure to contact people and businesses who owe you money to confirm when they will pay. If you expect a seasonal cash flow crunch, prepare for it by speaking to your bank about an overdraft.

6. Work from the beach

Rather than poring over a spreadsheet this holiday, you could do most of your numbers with a mouse click or screen swipe and spend the rest of the holiday season at the pool. As the global and technology market leader of integrated accounting, payroll and payment systems, we give business builders solutions that enable them to control their businesses from the palm of their hand so they can stay in control from a smartphone wherever they are – even the beach.

7. Start the New Year with a bang

Long standing customers will appreciate a New Year mailer to get them excited for opening specials when you are back in business to kick-start the New Year. This could be an opportunity to rid the business of old stock that did not sell during the holidays. Opening sales are very popular and if you want to attract new business, this could be one of the ways.